adventures in making stuff

How Clojure Babies Are Made: Understanding lein run

18 March 2013

Leiningen reminds me a lot of Major Alex Louis Armstrong from Fullmetal Alchemist:

What artistry!

  • They are both manly
  • They are both artistic
  • Sometimes you don't know what the f* they're saying (but it's amazing anyway)
  • Mustaches
  • Sparkles

Though the Strong Arm Alchemist will forever remain inscrutable, we do have some hope in understanding Leiningen better. In this post, we'll peek under Leiningen's lederhosen so that we can begin to learn precisely what it does and how to make effective use of it in developing, testing, running, and deploying Clojure applications.

Here's what we'll learn:

  • How to build and run a Clojure program without Leiningen
  • What happens when you run lein run
  • Basic Leiningen architecture
  • What happens when you run a Leiningen task

In the next post, we'll learn:

  • How Leiningen avoids waste with a trampoline
  • How Leiningen manages dependencies
  • How to distribute a full application
  • How to distribute a library
  • Other stuff Leiningen does

This post builds on How Clojure Babies Are Made: Compiling and Running a Java Program, so make sure you understand everything in that post first. It doesn't have any pictures of sparkly, sensitive, muscle-bound men though so if that's what you're hoping for you're out of luck. We're here to learn Clojure, dammit, not ogle cartoons!

Brief Overview of Leiningen

Leiningen is the Swiss Army Bazooka of Clojure development. It handles:

  • Project compilation. Your Clojure has to get converted into Java bytecode somehow, and Leiningen automates the process.
  • Dependency management. Similar to Ruby's bundler and gemfiles, Leiningen automates the process of resolving and downloading the Java jars your project depends on
  • Running tasks. Superficially similar to Ruby's Rake, except that Rake is not very declarative. This could have its own blog post.
  • Deployment. Helps with creating Java jars which can be executed and/or incorporated in other projects. Similar to Ruby gems.

How to Build and Run a Clojure Program Without Leiningen

By understanding how to build and run a Clojure program manually, you'll better understand what Leiningen does to automate the process. We'll be working with the files under leiningen/manual-build which you can get from the make a clojure baby repo. All path references will be relative to make-a-clojure-baby/leiningen/manual-build.

The program we're compiling will make us fluent in the ways of German Love:

(ns learn-a-language.important-phrases
  (:gen-class))

;; It's time for some German love! 
(def german
  [["I love you." "Ich liebe dich."]
   ["You make me so happy!" "Du machst mich so glucklich!"]
   ["I miss you." "Ich vermisse dich./Du fehlst mir."]
   ["Pass me the mustard." "Gib mir den Senf."]   
   ["Kiss me!" "Kuss mich!"]])

(defn -main
  [which]
  (let [phrases (get german (Integer. which))]
    (println "English: " (first phrases))
    (println "German: " (second phrases))))

One important thing to note here is that we included the :gen-class directive in the ns declaration. This tells Clojure to generate a named Java class when it compiles the namespace. Remember that Java requires a public main method within a public class to serve as the entry point for the JVM. Using :gen-class allows us to use learn-a-language.important-phrases/-main as the entry point.

Let's go ahead and compile. First, start up a Clojure repl (note that the git repo includes the 1.5.1 release of Clojure as clojure.jar):

java -cp .:clojure.jar clojure.main

Notice that we specifed the classpath with -cp .:clojure.jar. This does two things:

  • It allows us to execute the main method in clojure.main similarly to what we saw at the end of the last post
  • It adds the current directory to the classpath so that when you actually start loading Clojure files and compiling namespaces, the Clojure repl can find them. To see what I mean, try starting the repl with java -jar clojure.jar and then running the code below.

You should now have a Clojure repl running in your terminal. Copy and paste the following lines into it:

(load "learn_a_language/important_phrases")
(compile 'learn-a-language.important-phrases)

The first line reads the specified file. The second actually compiles the learn-a-language.important-phrases namespace, generating a boatload of Java class files in the classes/learn_a_language directory:

$ ls classes/learn_a_language/
important_phrases$_main.class
important_phrases$fn__19.class
important_phrases$fn__48.class
important_phrases$loading__4910__auto__.class
important_phrases.class
important_phrases__init.class

(I won't go into into detail about the purposes of the various class files, but you can start to learn more about that in clojure's compilation documentation.)

After going through the above steps, you might have a question on your mind grapes: "Where did the classes directory come from?"

Oh, gentle-hearted reader. Your dedication to learning has touched my heart. I shall answer your query: Clojure places compiled files under *compile-path*, which is classes by default. Therefore, classes must exist and be accessible from the classpath. You'll notice that there's a classes directory in the git repo with a .gitkeep file in it. Never change, dear, inquisitive reader. Never!

Now that we've compiled our Clojure program, let's get it running:

# Notice that you have to provide a numerical argument
$ java -cp classes:clojure.jar learn_a_language/important_phrases 0
English:  I love you.
German:  Ich liebe dich.

$ java -cp classes:clojure.jar learn_a_language/important_phrases 3
English:  Pass me the mustard.
German:  Gib mir den Senf.

Success! You are now ready to express your love for Leiningen in its native tongue. I highly recommend you use this program to come up with tweets to send to @technomancy to express your appreciation.

But before you do that, notice the classpath. We need to include both the classes directory, because that's where the learn_a_language/important_phrases class files live, and clojure.jar, because the class files generated by compile need to be able to access Clojure class files.

To sum up:

# load clojure repl
$ java -cp .:clojure.jar clojure.main
# in Clojure repl
user=> (load "learn_a_language/important_phrases")
user=> (compile 'learn-a-language.important-phrases)
# back to command line
java -cp classes:clojure.jar learn_a_language/important_phrases 0

I hope this brief foray into the world of manually building and running a Clojure program has been educational. You can see how it would be burdensome to go through his process over and over again while developing a program. Let's finally bring in our pal Leiningen to automate this process.

How Leiningen Compiles and Runs a Basic Clojure Program

Let's build the "learn a language" program with Leiningen. We have a very basic project at make-a-clojure-baby/leiningen/lein-build. Under that the directory, the file src/learn_a_language/important_phrases.clj is the same as the one listed above.

lein run

Lein automates the build + run process with lein run. Go ahead and try that now:

$ lein run 2
Compiling learn-a-language.important-phrases
English:  I miss you.
German:  Ich vermisse dich./Du fehlst mir.

You can probably guess what's happening at this point, at least to a degree. Leiningen is compiling important_phrases.clj resulting in a number of Java .class files. We can, in fact, see these class files:

$ ls target/classes/learn_a_language
important_phrases$_main.class
important_phrases$loading__4784__auto__.class
important_phrases__init.class

Leiningen then somehow constructs a classpath such that both Clojure and the "important phrases" classes are accessible by Java. Finally, the -main function is executed.

I know what you're thinking at this point, noble reader. You're thinking that the "somehow" in "somehow constructs a classpath" is a particularly un-manly, un-artistic, un-mustached, un-sparkly word, unbefitting an article on Leiningen. And you are absolutely right. To avoid your wrath, let's dig into Leiningen's source code so that we can understand what's going on with complete clarity.

Walking Through "lein run"

To get an idea of where to start, let's run lein run 1 again and then run ps | grep lein. The output has been broken up to make more sense (apologies for the goofy highlighting):

# you can actually copy and paste the part after the PID to try this
# in your terminal
8420 /usr/bin/java \
  -client -XX:+TieredCompilation  \
  -Xbootclasspath/a:/Users/daniel/.lein/self-installs/leiningen-2.0.0-standalone.jar \
  -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 \
  -Dmaven.wagon.http.ssl.easy=false \
  -Dleiningen.original.pwd=/Users/daniel/projects/web_sites/make-a-clojure-baby/leiningen/lein-build \
  -Dleiningen.script=/Users/daniel/bin/lein \
  -classpath :/Users/daniel/.lein/self-installs/leiningen-2.0.0-standalone.jar \
  clojure.main \ `# clojure.main is the entry point` \
  -m leiningen.core.main \
  run 1

8432 /usr/bin/java \
  `# your classpath will be different` \
  -classpath \
    /Users/daniel/projects/web_sites/make-a-clojure-baby/leiningen/lein-build/test:\
    /Users/daniel/projects/web_sites/make-a-clojure-baby/leiningen/lein-build/src:\
    /Users/daniel/projects/web_sites/make-a-clojure-baby/leiningen/lein-build/dev-resources:\
    /Users/daniel/projects/web_sites/make-a-clojure-baby/leiningen/lein-build/resources:\
    /Users/daniel/projects/web_sites/make-a-clojure-baby/leiningen/lein-build/target/classes:\
    /Users/daniel/.m2/repository/org/clojure/clojure/1.5.1/clojure-1.5.1.jar
  -XX:+TieredCompilation \
  -Dclojure.compile.path=/Users/daniel/projects/web_sites/make-a-clojure-baby/leiningen/lein-build/target/classes \
  -Dlearn-a-language.version=0.1.0-SNAPSHOT \
  -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 \
  -Dclojure.debug=false \
  clojure.main \ `# clojure.main is the entry point` \
  `# this next part specifies code to be evaluated by Clojure` \
  -e (do \
      (try \
       (clojure.core/require 'learn-a-language.important-phrases) \
       (catch java.io.FileNotFoundException ___6081__auto__)) \
      (set! *warn-on-reflection* nil) \
      (clojure.core/let \
       [v__6079__auto__ \
        (clojure.core/resolve 'learn-a-language.important-phrases/-main)] \
       (if \
        (clojure.core/ifn? v__6079__auto__) \
        (v__6079__auto__ "1") \
        (clojure.lang.Reflector/invokeStaticMethod \
         "learn-a-language.important-phrases" \
         "main" \
         (clojure.core/into-array \
          [(clojure.core/into-array java.lang.String '("1"))])))))

There are two things happening here. When you first run lein run, then the process with PID 8420 starts. There are a lot of configuration variables that we don't necessarily need to care about. What's essentially happening is we're saying:

  • Start up the JVM with the leiningen standalone jar on the classpath
  • Use clojure.main as the Java entry point
  • Pass -m leiningen.core.main run 1 as arguments to clojure.main

That last step specifies the Clojure entry point, as opposed to the Java entry point. Clojure uses it to load the leiningen.core.main namespace and then execute the -main function within it. leiningen.core.main/-main receives the arguments run 1.

We can view Leiningen's leiningen.core.main/-main function on github:

(defn -main
  "Command-line entry point."
  [& raw-args]
  (try
    (user/init)
    (let [project (project/init-project
                   (if (.exists (io/file "project.clj"))
                     (project/read)
                     (assoc (project/make (:user (user/profiles)))
                       :eval-in :leiningen :prep-tasks [])))
          [task-name args] (task-args raw-args project)]
      (when (:min-lein-version project) (verify-min-version project))
      (configure-http)
      (warn-chaining task-name args)
      (apply-task task-name project args))
    (catch Exception e
      (if (or *debug* (not (:exit-code (ex-data e))))
        (.printStackTrace e)
        (when-not (:suppress-msg (ex-data e))
          (println (.getMessage e))))
      (exit (:exit-code (ex-data e) 1))))
  (exit 0))

Just as we would suspect from the ps output, this is the command line entry point for lein. One of the first things this function does is figure out your project configuration from your project.clj file. Here's ours:

(defproject learn-a-language "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT"
  :description "FIXME: write description"
  :url "http://example.com/FIXME"
  :license {:name "Eclipse Public License"
            :url "http://www.eclipse.org/legal/epl-v10.html"}
  :dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.5.1"]]
  :main learn-a-language.important-phrases)

The most important line, for our purposes, is

:main learn-a-language.important-phrases

This tells Leiningen what function to execute when you run lein run. If you specify a namespace without a function, as we do above, then Leiningen defaults to using the -main function.

Next, if you look about 2/3 of the way down in the leiningen.core.main/-main function, you'll see the apply-task function being called. This calls resolve-task which eventually resolves to leiningen.run, which you can also see on github.

This is pretty cool — run is just another task from Leiningen's point of view. Wait... did I just say "cool"? I meant MANLY and ARTISTIC and SPARKLY. But yeah, it looks like basic leiningen architecture includes the leiningen.core collection of namespaces, which handle task resolution and application, and plain ol' leiningen, which appears to be mostly a collection of default tasks.

Leiningen uses this same mechanism to execute any function in your Clojure project as a task. Bodacious! I recommend checking out the code for the other Leiningen tasks. You'll see how they do more than just require and run a single function, but the task-running infrastructure remains the same.

Anyway, once the run task has been resolved, it is executed and the result is the second process we saw in the ps | grep lein output above, the process with PID 8432. A sub-process is created to enforce isolation between Leiningen and your project. I won't go into how the command for the sub-process gets constructed, as you can figure that all out from leiningen/run. What's more important is what it actually does. The command loads Clojure and tells it to evaluate the following:

(do
  (try
    (clojure.core/require 'learn-a-language.important-phrases)
    (catch java.io.FileNotFoundException ___6081__auto__))
  (set! *warn-on-reflection* nil)
  (clojure.core/let
      [v__6079__auto__
       (clojure.core/resolve 'learn-a-language.important-phrases/-main)]
    (if
        (clojure.core/ifn? v__6079__auto__)
      (v__6079__auto__ "1")
      (clojure.lang.Reflector/invokeStaticMethod
       "learn-a-language.important-phrases"
       "main"
       (clojure.core/into-array
        [(clojure.core/into-array java.lang.String '("1"))])))))

You can see how the end result is that learn-a-language.important-phrases/-main gets executed with the argument "1". One interesting thing to note about this approach is that the :gen-class directive isn't actually needed. In the manual build at the beginning of this article, we needed :gen-class because we were specifying learn-a-language.important-phrases as the JVM entry point. When we use lein run, the entry point is clojure.main. Once Clojure is loaded, we use it to evaluate some code which loads the learn-a-language.important-phrases namespace and then calls the -main function.

Wrapping Things Up

So now we know how Leiningen compiles and runs a basic Clojure program! Can you feel your mustache growing? Can you feel your artistry blooming? Are you feeling just a smidge more sparklier? I sure hope so!

Here's everything we covered:

Building and running a Clojure program manually:

  • Load the Clojure repl
  • Load your Clojure code (make sure it includes :gen-class)
  • Compile your Clojure code. By default code gets put in classes directory
  • Run your code, making sure the classpath includes the classes directory and clojure.jar
# load clojure repl
$ java -cp .:clojure.jar clojure.main
# in Clojure repl
user=> (load "learn_a_language/important_phrases")
user=> (compile 'learn-a-language.important-phrases)
# back to command line
java -cp classes:clojure.jar learn_a_language/important_phrases 0

Building and running a Clojure program with Leiningen:

  • Run lein run
  • Magic!
    • Start Java with clojure.main as the entry point
    • Execute the leiningen.core/-main function
      • Setup project config with project.clj
      • Resolve the task to be run
    • Run the task
      • Automagically set the classpath
      • Use clojure.main as the Java entry point
      • Construct some Clojure code to evaluate so that the project's main function gets executed. This happens in a sub-process to enforce isolcation from Leiningen. Check out Leiningen's eval-in-project function for more info.

In the next article we'll cover:

  • How Leiningen avoids waste with a trampoline
  • How Leiningen manages dependencies
  • How to distribute a full application
  • How to distribute a library
  • Manliness

I hope you enjoyed this article. Please do leave me any feedback - I'm always looking for ways to improve my writing!

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